Sunday, 08 September 2019 09:41

Anticoagulation news items. Week commencing 2nd September 2019

Safety and Efficacy of Dabigatran Etexilate vs Dose-Adjusted Warfarin in Patients With Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Neurology

RCT (n=120) found no recurrent VTEs and one major bleeding event with dabigatran and two with warfarin. Authors conclude that both may be effective for recurrent VTE prevention in patients with central venous thrombosis.

 

Effect of Low-Intensity vs Standard-Intensity Warfarin Prophylaxis on Venous Thromboembolism or Death Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Journal of the American Medical Association

RCT (n=1,650) failed to establish non-inferiority of an INR goal of 1.8 vs 2.5 for VTE prevention post hip or knee arthroplasty (rate of VTE or death was 5.1% for INR target of 1.8 vs 3.8% for INR target 2.5, difference 1.3%, p=0.06 for non-inferiority).

 

A Genotype-Guided Strategy for Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors in Primary PCI

New England Journal of Medicine

Open label RCT (n=2,488) found a similar efficacy outcome (composite of stent thrombosis, mortality and myocardial infarction) for a CYP2C19 genotype–guided strategy vs standard ticagrelor or prasugrel, but minor bleeding rates were lower (9.8% vs 12.5% p=0.04).

 

Edoxaban-based versus vitamin K antagonist-based antithrombotic regimen after successful coronary stenting in patients with atrial fibrillation (ENTRUST-AF PCI): a randomised, open-label, phase 3b trial

The Lancet

RCT (n=1,506) found that edoxaban was non-inferior to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) for bleeding events (annualised rate of 20.7% for edoxaban vs 25.6% for VKAs, HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.65-1.05, non-inferiority margin HR = 1.20, p=0.001 for non-inferiority).

 

Biosimilars of low molecular weight heparins: Relevant background information for your drug formulary

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

This review gives background information on critical factors for the formulary uptake process of LMWHs. It introduces a straightforward instrument to enhance formulary policy making in a transparent, rational way (the System of Objectified Judgment Analysis/Infomatrix model).

 

2019 international clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer

The Lancet Oncology

This guidance is based on a systematic review of the literature. Results from head to head trials comparing DOACs with LMWHs are included for information in the guidance along with new evidence for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE in patients with cancer.

 

Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation with Stable Coronary Disease

New England Journal of Medicine

Study of 2236 AF patients reports rivaroxaban monotherapy is non-inferior to combination therapy with antiplatelet+rivaroxaban for the primary efficacy end point (composite of stroke, systemic embolism, MI, unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause).

 

Estimating individual lifetime benefit and bleeding risk of adding rivaroxaban to aspirin for patients with stable cardiovascular disease: results from the COMPASS trial

European Heart Journal

Predicted individual gain in life expectancy free of stroke or MI from added low-dose rivaroxaban had a median of 16 months (range 1–48 months), while predicted individualized lifetime lost in terms of major bleeding had a median of 2 months (range 0–20 months).

 

Ticagrelor in Patients with Stable Coronary Disease and Diabetes

New England Journal of Medicine

RCT (n=19,220; median follow-up 39.9 months) reported lower incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular events with ticagrelor + aspirin vs aspirin (7.7 vs. 8.5%; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.99; P=0.04) but higher incidence of major bleeding (2.2 vs. 1.0%; 2.32; 1.82 to 2.94; P<0.001).

 

Ticagrelor or Prasugrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

New England Journal of Medicine

Open-label RCT (n=4018) reported incidence of death, MI, or stroke was significantly lower in the prasugrel group vs ticagrelor group (6.9% vs 9.3%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.70; P=0.006) with no difference in major bleeding (4.8% vs 5.4%; 1.12; 0.83 to 1.51; P=0.46).

 

Ticagrelor in patients with diabetes and stable coronary artery disease with a history of previous percutaneous coronary intervention (THEMIS-PCI): a phase 3, placebo-controlled, randomised trial

The Lancet

Sub-group analysis (n=11,154) reported that addition of ticagrelor to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke vs placebo for a median of 3.3 years (7.3 vs 8.6% in the PCI group; HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.97; p=0.013), although with increased risk of major bleeding.

 

2019 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism

European Heart Journal

These guidelines, an update of the 2014 guidelines, outline the optimal diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services