Items filtered by date: October 2021

Left Ventricular Dysfunction Among Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source and the Effect of Rivaroxaban vs Aspirin: A Subgroup Analysis of the NAVIGATE ESUS Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Neurology
Post hoc exploratory analysis (n=502) found rivaroxaban was superior to aspirin in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism among NAVIGATE ESUS participants with left ventricular dysfunction (annualised primary event rates: 2.4% vs 6.5%, respectively).

 

Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in CYP2C19 Loss-of-Function Carriers with Stroke or TIA

New England Journal of Medicine
RCT at 202 centres in China (n=6412) found in Chinese patients with minor ischaemic stroke/TIA who were carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles, stroke risk at 90 days was modestly lower with ticagrelor than clopidogrel (6.0 vs. 7.6%; HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.94; p=0.008).

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Safety and efficacy of different prophylactic anticoagulation dosing regimens in critically and non-critically ill patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Review (7 RCTs; n=5,154) found escalated-dose prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with lower rates of VTE (2.5% vs. 4.7%; RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41–0.74) but no benefit on other outcomes vs standard dose; and it increased risk of major bleeding (2.4% vs. 1.4%).

 

Ticagrelor monotherapy in patients at high bleeding risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: TWILIGHT-HBR

European Heart Journal
This pre-specified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial found withdrawal of aspirin after 3 months in those with no events reduced bleeding risk (6.3% vs. 11.4%; HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35–0.82) without increasing ischaemic events when compared to continued aspirin and ticagrelor.

 

Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Interventions for Structural Heart Disease

Circulation
Review discusses current evidence on the use of antithrombotic therapy in these patients, noting the optimal regimens to adopt in each specific procedure is still unclear, and emphasizing the importance of a tailored approach.

 

Apixaban versus no anticoagulation after anticoagulation-associated intracerebral haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands (APACHE-AF): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial

The Lancet Neurology
RCT (n=101) found over median follow-up of 1.9 years, there was high subsequent annual risk of non-fatal stroke/vascular death, whether allocated to apixaban or to avoid anticoagulation (annual event rate 12·6% vs 11·9%, respectively, HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.48–2.31; p=0.90).

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

 

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Rivaroxaban Is Associated With Higher Rates of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Than Other Direct Oral Anticoagulants: A Nationwide Propensity Score–Weighted Study

Annals of Internal Medicine
Study (n=2,157) found rates of GI bleeding were higher for rivaroxaban than apixaban (3.2 vs. 2.5 overall events per 100 person-years [HR 1.42; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.93; major bleeding HR 1.50 [1.00 to 2.24]) and dabigatran (similar estimates but including possibility of null effect).

 

All Wales Medicines Strategy Groups consults on draft guidance on oral anticoagulation for non-valvular atrial fibrillation

All Wales Medicines Strategy Group
This consultation presents a proposed update to the current guidance, following the publication of updated NICE guidance (NG196; published June 2021). The update includes re-positioning DOACs before vitamin K antagonists, and an amendment to the tool for assessing bleeding risk.

 

Would You Recommend Aspirin to This Patient for Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease?

Annals of Internal Medicine
In this article, two clinicians discuss and debate current guidelines on use of aspirin for primary prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease, the appropriate risk threshold for starting aspirin therapy, and the role of the coronary artery calcium score in decision making.

 

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD

Circulation
Review of VOYAGER PAD study (n=6564) found, in those with prior lower extremity revascularisation, rivaroxaban reduced acute limb ischaemia vs placebo (by 2.6% at 3 years; HR 0.67, 95%CI 0.55 to 0.82) with a benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 0.24 to 0.85 at 30 days after surgery).

 

Anticoagulant prescribing for atrial fibrillation and risk of incident dementia

Heart
In study of healthcare records from UK CPRD (n=39,200 of whom 1258 had dementia [DM]), use of DOAC for AF was linked to 16% reduction in DM diagnosis vs. Vit K antagonist (HR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98) & 26% reduction in incident mild cognitive impairment (0.74, 95% CI: 0.65-0.84).

 

Effectiveness of therapeutic heparin versus prophylactic heparin on death, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission in moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital: RAPID randomised clinical trial

British Medical Journal
This RCT in hospitalised adults with Covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels (n=465; mean BMI 30.3 kg/m2) found therapeutic dose heparin did not reduce the risk of the primary composite endpoint (16.2% v 21.9% prophylactic dose; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.10; P=0.12).

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Temporal Association Between Episodes of Atrial Fibrillation and Risk of Ischemic Stroke

JAMA Cardiology
Cohort study (n=891) found excess stroke risk was highest within 5 days of an episode of atrial fibrillation (AF) of >5.5 hours in duration and diminished rapidly thereafter, thus supporting trials of time-delimited anticoagulation for infrequent multi-hour episodes of AF.

 

Revised SPC: Clexane (enoxaparin) pre-filled syringes

electronic Medicines compendium
SPC updated to note licence extension for use as extended treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and prevention of its recurrence in patients with active cancer.

 

Efficacy and Safety of Therapeutic-Dose Heparin vs Standard Prophylactic or Intermediate-Dose Heparins for Thromboprophylaxis in High-risk Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: The HEP-COVID Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Internal Medicine
In RCT (n=253), therapeutic-dose LMWH reduced major thromboembolism & death vs institutional standard heparin thromboprophylaxis (28.7 vs 41.9%;RR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.96;p= 0.03) among inpatients with very elevated D-dimer levels, with no significant difference in major bleeding.

 

Unguided de-escalation from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in stabilised patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (TALOS-AMI): an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised trial

The Lancet
RCT (n= 2697, South Korea) found unguided de-escalation antiplatelet strategy (switching from ticagrelor+aspirin [TA] to clopidogrel+aspirin) was superior to remaining on TA at preventing net adverse clinical events up to 12 months, mainly by reducing bleeding events.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Thromboprophylaxis for children post‐Fontan procedure: Insights From the UNIVERSE Study

Journal of the American Medical Association
RCT (n=112) found that compared to aspirin, rivaroxaban liquid based on body weight–adjusted dosing had similar safety profile (clinically relevant non-major bleeding in 6% vs 9% on aspirin) & fewer thrombotic events (2% vs 9%, respectively), albeit not statistically significant.

 

Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine–Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia

JAMA Neurology
Study of 116 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after covid vaccine found 67.2% had thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). In hospital mortality rate was 47% with TTS, 5% without TTS and 3.9% in a control group of patients with CVST before the pandemic.

 

Revised SPC: Clexane (enoxaparin) Forte Syringes

electronic Medicines compendium
SPC has been revised to reflect licence extension covering extended treatment of DVT & PE & prevention of its recurrence in patients with active cancer. Recommended dose is 100 IU/kg (1 mg/kg) BD by SC injections for 5-10 days, followed by 150 IU/kg (1.5 mg/kg) OD up to 6 months.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:

http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

Published in News