Items filtered by date: May 2020

The impact of atrial fibrillation type on the risk of thromboembolism, mortality, and bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

European Heart Journal

Guidelines recommend decisions on oral anticoagulation be made independently of classification into paroxysmal AF (PAF) or non-PAF. This study suggests NPAF may be linked to increased risk of stroke and mortality vs. PAF, thus AF type may need to be considered.

 

Boehringer announces that idarucizumab (Praxbind®) is now available to be used commercially in England, Ireland and Wales

Biospace Inc.

According to Boehringer, the Health Technology Appraisal bodies in these countries agreed that idarucizumab, which specifically reverses anticoagulant effect of dabigatran, is eligible for full reimbursment without the need for a full appraisal.

 

The past and future of haemophilia: diagnosis, treatments, and its complications

The Lancet

In this seminar, the authors provide an overview of the diagnosis of haemophilia and describe the clinical manifestations and treatment (both on-demand and prophylactic). Inhibitor formation as a complication of replacement therapy and its treatment is also discussed.

 

Rivaroxaban compared with standard thromboprophylaxis after major orthopaedic surgery: co-medication interactions

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

This retrospective analysis (n=17,701) found that major bleeding events were more common with NSAID use (vs non-use) in both standard of care (SOC) and rivaroxaban groups. NSAID use had no influence on thromboembolic events in either SOC or rivaroxaban groups.

 

Biologics License Application for andexanet alfa to reverse anticoagulant activity of direct and indirect Factor Xa inhibitors accepted for review by FDA

Biospace Inc.

Andexanet alfa is being developing as an antidote for use in patients treated with a direct or indirect Factor Xa inhibitor when reversal of anticoagulation is needed, such as in life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding or for emergency surgery and urgent procedures.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Long-term antiplatelet therapy following myocardial infarction: implications of PEGASUS-TIMI 54

European Heart Journal

This review on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discusses the implications of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 study which showed that patients with a history of ACS and at high risk of further ischaemic events, may benefit from prolonged ticagrelor-based DAPT.

 

Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary embolism

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Moderate to high quality evidence suggests that there are no differences between these agents and standard anticoagulation for long-term treatment of PE for the outcomes recurrent PE, recurrent venous thromboembolism, DVT, all-cause mortality and major bleeding.

 

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

 

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Post-thrombotic syndrome after catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis (CaVenT): 5-year follow-up results of an open-label, randomised controlled trial

The Lancet Haematology

Additional catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in a persistent and increased clinical benefit vs. control during follow-up for up to 5 years, supporting use of this intervention in patients with extensive proximal DVT. However, it did not lead to better quality of life.

 

Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 1

European Heart Journal

The following scenarios are covered: stable CAD/PVD; cardioversion, ablation and anti-arrhythmics; mechanical valves, patients with time in therapeutic range of >70% on warfarin; patients with single stroke risk factor; and patients with a single first episode of paroxysmal AF.

 

Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 2

European Heart Journal

The following scenarios are covered: post CVA/TIA, acute stroke requiring thrombolysis/thrombectomy, initiating/restarting treatment after CVA/TIA, dialysis, the elderly, high risk of GI bleeding, hypertension, adherence and compliance.

 

Pfizer issues oral anticoagulants toolkit to support delivery of Medicines Use Reviews (MURs) and the New Medicine Service (NMS)

Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee

The PSNC and Pharmacy Voice have endorsed this toolkit, hard copies of which are available to order from the Access Pfizer website (need to register on website and have an Alliance Healthcare account number or Pfizer customer account number).

 

Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Stroke

Review of 10 studies did not find link between use of NSAIDs and increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke (pooled RR 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.22), although individually, this risk was modestly elevated in diclofenac and meloxicam users (1.27, 1.02–1.59 and 1.2, 1.08–1.50, respectively).

 

Summary of antidotes to NOACs (inlcuding those currently in development) which could impact NOAC use in the future

London Medicines Evaluation Network

This briefing aims to provide an update on idarucizumab (launched), andexanet alpha (potential launch 2017), and aripazine (phase 2 studies), including the evidence base underpinning their use as antidotes to NOACs.

 

Call for independent review of ROCKET-AF trial of rivaroxaban and Bayer’s response

British Medical Journal

There is a call for an independent investigation into the ROCKET-AF trial underpinning use of rivaroxaban to prevent ischaemic stroke in non-valvular AF after a BMJ investigation found defective point of care INR device was used in warfarin arm of trial.

 

Impact of pharmacy care upon adherence to cardiovascular medicines: a feasibility pilot controlled trial

European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

This study of 71 patients randomised to receive community pharmacy interviews (face-to-face or phone consultation) for 6 months after discharge following acute treatment for a coronary event showed statistically significantly improved adherence in the intervention group.

 

Randomized Phase III Trial of Standard Therapy Plus Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Patients With Lung Cancer: FRAGMATIC Trial

Journal of Clinical Oncology

Data from this open-label RCT (n=2,202) show that these heparins do not improve overall survival or metastasis-free survival in lung cancer patients, although there was a statistically significant reduction in VTE (at the cost of increased clinically relevant non-major bleeding).

 

A review of sex-specific benefits and risks of antithrombotic therapy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

European Heart Journal

An overview of current data examining sex differences in the use of, and outcomes related to, antithrombotic therapy for patients with ACS, concludes that antithrombotic therapies for acute MI are similar in efficacy in males & females, but females are at higher risk of bleeding.

 

Antifibrinolytic therapy for preventing oral bleeding in patients with haemophilia or Von Willebrand disease undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Despite discovery of a beneficial effect of systemically administered tranexamic acid and epsilon aminocaproic acid in preventing postop bleeding, the limited number of RCTs do not provide definite evidence of efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in this setting.

 

Mobile Telephone Text Messaging for Medication Adherence in Chronic Disease A Meta-analysis

JAMA Internal Medicine

According to this meta-analysis, mobile phone text messaging approximately doubles the odds of medication adherence. This increase translates into adherence rates improving from 50% (assuming this baseline rate in patients with chronic disease) to 67.8% (absolute increase 17.8%).

 

Acute Limb Ischemia and Outcomes With Vorapaxar in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease: Results From TRA2°P-TIMI 50

Circulation

This RCT (n=3,787) of patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease found that vorapaxar reduced total acute limb ischaemia events (ALI) events (94 vs 56, HR=0.59, 95% CI= 0.38-0.93) and first ALI events (HR 0.58, 95% CI= 0.39-0.86).

 

European CHMP adopts positive opinion for factor X (Coagadex) for the treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding episodes and for perioperative management in patients with hereditary factor X deficiency

European Medicines Agency

Factor X, an antihaemorrhagic, works as replacement therapy and temporarily increases plasma levels of factor X, helping to prevent and control bleeding. Factor X has orphan status and is being reviewed under accelerated assessment.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

 

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Revised SPC: TachoSil (human fibrinogen and thrombin) sealant matrix

electronic Medicines Compendium

SPC advises that to prevent development of tissue adhesions (AHs) at undesired sites, tissue areas outside desired application area should be adequately cleansed before administration of TachoSil. AHs to GI tissues have been reported with use during abdo surgery close to bowel.

 

Oral direct factor Xa inhibitor versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty: Systemic review, traditional meta-analysis, dose–response meta-analysis and network meta-analysis

Thrombosis Reasearch

Review of 20 trials (n= 38,507) found that direct oral factor Xa inhibitors are more effective than enoxaparin in preventing venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement. Their anticoagulant effect was not necessarily compromised with a higher bleeding risk.

 

Stent Retrievers for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

JAMA Neurology

Patients randomised to stent-retriever therapy (used for mechanical thrombectomy) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) had improved rates of functional independence at 90 days v those on rtPA alone (RR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99).

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

 

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Anticoagulation with rivaroxaban for livedoid vasculopathy (RILIVA): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2a, proof-of-concept trial

The Lancet Haematology

In this phase 2a proof-of concept trial (n=36) patients with livedoid vasculopathy and minimum pain score of 40 on the visual analogue scale (VAS) received rivaroxaban. Median pain decreased from VAS 65.0 at baseline to 6.0 at 12 weeks treatment (p<0.0001).

 

Bivalirudin in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome

British Medical Journal

This review covers the evidence and clinical implications for use of bivalirudin as an anticoagulant in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and compares efficacy and outcome data with that of heparin.

 

Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

British Medical Journal

In this meta-analysis of 30 studies (n=4,371,714) atrial fibrillation was associated with a higher risk of all cause mortality, stroke, CV mortality, and CV events in women compared with men; however, it was noted that further research is needed to confirm causality.

 

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Drug Discontinuation and Follow-up Rates in Oral Antithrombotic Trials

JAMA Internal Medicine

Researcher examined participant loss–to–follow-up rates for major trials of oral antithrombotics, comparing rates reported in medical journals with rates using data submitted by manufacturers to FDA and found published rates were consistently lower than FDA rates (0.4% vs. 12%).

 

Elocta [rFVIIIFc] launched in UK for prophylaxis and on-demand treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A

PharmaTimes

Elocta [rFVIIIFc], a fully recombinant fusion protein, is first haemophilia A treatment approved in Europe that offers prolonged protection against bleeding episodes through prophylactic injections every 3-5 days instead of every other day with conventional therapies.

 

Meta-Analysis of Renal Function on the Safety and Efficacy of Novel Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation

American Journal of Cardiology

Analysis of 4 RCTs of NOACs for treatment of nonvalvular AF (n=58,338) noted that their use was linked to reduced risk of stroke or systemic embolism, and reduced risk of major bleeding compared with warfarin in subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment.

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Post-thrombotic syndrome after catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis (CaVenT): 5-year follow-up results of an open-label, randomised controlled trial

The Lancet Haematology

In this RCT, 37 patients (43%) allocated to catheter-directed thrombolysis developed post-thrombotic syndrome, v 63 (71%) allocated to control group (compression stockings+anticoagulation, p<0.0001), corresponding to an absolute risk reduction of 28% (NNT=4).

 

Risk of death and stroke associated with anticoagulation therapy after mitral valve repair

Heart

In this cohort study of 2188 patients undergoing mitral valve repair, patients on vitamin K antagonists (VKA) had a lower risk of death/stroke at 3 months (HR=0.28, CI 0.13 to 0.62, p=0.002) without an excess major bleeding risk vs. patients not on VKA post discharge.

 

A population database study of outcomes associated with vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation before DOAC

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

In this French cohort study of new vitamin K antagonist (VKA) users with atrial fibrillation (n=3,345) there were 3.8 deaths, 2.8 hospitalisations due to bleeding, 1.6 acute coronary syndrome events and 1.5 acute thrombotic events per 100 patient-years.

 

Dabigatran etexilate and reduction in serum apolipoprotein B

Heart

This data review of 2513 patients in the RE-LY trial showed that dabigatran therapy reduced apolipoprotein B after 3 months treatment by -0.057 g/L and -0.065g/L at low dose (110mg bd) and high dose (150mg bd) respectively whereas no reduction was seen with warfarin.

 

Reversal strategies for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: a critical appraisal of available evidence and recommendations for clinical management

European Heart Journal

Summary: This joint paper covers the risk of bleeding with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and existing reversal strategies including the potential benefit of specific reversal agents.

 

Newer antiplatelet agents in acute coronary syndrome

British Medical Journal

Prasugrel and ticagrelor have more predictable pharmacokinetics than clopidogrel (CP) and are appreciably faster in onset of action. Many cardiologists thus use these 2 agents over CP. This editorial discusses whether prescribing of newer antiplatelets has outpaced the evidence?

 

Long-acting haemophilia B therapy nonacog beta pegol filed for approval in EU 

PharmaTimes

Nonacog beta pegol is a glycopegylated recombinant factor IX with an improved pharmacokinetic profile and 5-times longer half-life than standard factor IX. The filing is based on data from paradigm clinical trial programme of 115 patients with moderate- severe haemophilia B.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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What doses of thromboprophylaxis are appropriate for adult patients at extremes of body weight?

UKMi

This updated Medicines Q&A prepared by the Haemostasis Anticoagulation and Thrombosis Committee of the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association reviews the data available and offers guidance on dosing of thromboprophylaxis in patients who are obese or of low body weight.

 

Bivalirudin, glycoprotein inhibitor, and heparin use and association with outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the United Kingdom

European Heart Journal

Analysis of UK national PCI registry (n=61,138 procedures) noted no significant difference in short- or medium-term mortality between ST elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with bivalirudin vs. heparin-plus-glycoprotein inhibitors at primary PCI.

 

Time to Reperfusion and Treatment Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke A Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Neurology

RCT (n=500) found that for every hour of reperfusion delay, the initially large benefit of intra-arterial treatment decreases, with the absolute risk
difference for a good outcome being reduced by 6% per hour of delay.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

 

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Treatment for superficial infusion thrombophlebitis of the upper extremity

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Review of 13 studies (n=917) of a topical (11 studies), an oral and a parenteral treatment noted that evidence for treating acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis is limited and of low quality and is insufficient to recommend the use of any of the treatments studied.

 

Polypharmacy and the Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban versus Warfarin in the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Circulation

In a population of patients in ROCKET AF, polypharmacy was not linked to higher risk of stroke or non-CNS embolism (NCE), but it was linked
to higher risks of combined endpoint of stroke, NCE, vascular death, or MI, and non-major clinically relevant or major bleeding.

 

Early Clinical and Radiological Course, Management, and Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Related to New Oral Anticoagulants

JAMA Neurology

In this observational study of 61 patients with non-traumatic NOAC-associated intracerebral haemorrhage admitted between 2012 and 2014 it
is reported that mortality was 28% and 65% of survivors had an unfavourable outcome at 3 months. Haematoma expansion occurred in 38%.

 

Safety of antithrombotic drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation and non-end-stage chronic kidney disease: Meta-analysis and systematic review

Thrombosis Reasearch

This review of 12 studies showed no significant difference in bleeding risk between warfarin and antiplatelets (RR 1.05; 95% CI = 0.74 to
1.36), but reduced bleeding risk with direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin (RR 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.88).

 

Early time courses of recurrent thromboembolism and bleeding during apixaban or enoxaparin/warfarin therapy – sub-analysis of the AMPLIFY trial

Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Analysis of data from this RCT (n=5,395) comparing apixaban to enoxaparin followed by warfarin for treating venous thromboembolism showed
apixaban to be non-inferior at 7, 21, 90 days and 6 months and that the reduced bleeding risk with apixaban began early during treatment.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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Primary Care Atrial Fibrillation Service: outcomes from consultant-led anticoagulation assessment clinics in the primary care setting in the UK

BMJ Open

Service was delivered in 56 GP practices. Eligible patients on anticoagulation improved from 77% to 95% (p<0.0001). Audit of 8 practices after 195 days showed 90% continued treatment; ~30–35 strokes/year may have been prevented in these previously under-treated high-risk patients.

 

Association between use of warfarin with common sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemic events: retrospective cohort analysis

British Medical Journal

Study of 465,918 Medicare fee for service beneficiaries noted a substantial positive link between use of warfarin (WF) with glipizide/glimepiride and hospital admission/emergency department visits for hypoglycemia and related diagnoses, particularly in patients first starting WF.

 

The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

European Heart Journal

In this report of a validation of a new risk-scoring tool to assess bleeding risk in patients with AF, it is claimed that the five-element ORBIT bleeding risk score had better ability to predict major bleeding than either HAS-BLED and ATRIA risk scoring tools.

 

A Multinational Trial of Prasugrel for Sickle Cell Vaso-Occlusive Events

New England Journal of Medicine

In this RCT, 341 patients with sickle cell anaemia (aged 2 – 17) were randomised to receive prasugrel or placebo. At the end of the trial no significant differences were seen in the primary end-point of vaso-occlusive crises (2.30 vs 2.77 per patient per year).

 

Safety and effectiveness of oral rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for the treatment of symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (XALIA): an international, prospective, non-interventional study

The Lancet Haematology

In this real-life comparison of outcomes in patients receiving rivoroxaban (RV) (n=2619) or standard anticoagulation (n=2149) it was reported that although RV patients had a lower baseline risk, adjusted analyses show it to be a safe and effective alternative to standard treatment.

 

Oral antiplatelet agents – are they safe in breastfeeding?

UKMi

This updated medicines Q&A provides advice on the safety of oral antiplatelet agents in breastfeeding mothers.

 

Antithrombotic therapy in the elderly: expert position paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis

European Heart Journal

This expert opinion paper reviews the evidence and benefit and risk balance for antithrombotic therapy in the older age group and makes recommendations for maximising benefits and minimising risks.

 

 

The above records have been identified by UKMi and feature in the NICE Medicines Awareness Service. Further details on this service can be found at:
http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/about-evidence-services/content-and-sources/medicines-information/new-medicines-awareness-services

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